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In martial arts, meditation on the past actions leads to the ability and skill in future actions

Speed and Power


"The execution of motor actions in minimum time" ... Perfect, but the speed is a complex concept. One can be very fast in and slow out, fast attack and slow on defense. There are some very important basics. The speed is associated with power, and so must be trained. Start with basics move on to focus specifically on karate.

Structure of muscle cells:

ST cells: slow-twitch (800mseg), specializing in works of low intensity and long duration (high n ° of mitochondria, oxidative enzymes, capillary). The brain needs enervation 10-15 hertz. Will be discussed in the background and training volume (aerobic endurance).

FT-FTb cells: fast-twitch. The difference is due to its ability to work under the anaerobic (oxygen). Its contraction is faster (300 msec). Glycogen consuming work. Need between 25 and 40 herzt brain stimulation. These cells whose number is innate and varies with the individual (checked with biopsy). Anaerobic phase (the effort makes the central system, not the lungs) caractriza by the use of glycogen as an energy source, very expensive (oxygen, however, is infinite) and very short duration.

No substance within the muscle, the ATP, which comes into action with very strong stimuli (coping mechanisms and conservation, need maximal effort). It's sort of atomic explosion at the level of performance, with very little glycogen stored, the power generated in the first 15 seconds (not lactic anaerobic phase) allows one to get rid of an old truck in the style Fosbury. But from the first 15 seconds, as if the smoke of an engine pollutant it were, it creates a milky substance (hence the name of lactic acid) which produces the sensation of burning. We entered the lactic anaerobic phase (which takes about 30 seconds), depleting muscle glycogen, liver glycogen use and reuse again found in the blood. All this is very simply a reduction (! Physiologists forgive me!), But may serve to have some knowledge. The intensity training talk about it.

The recruitment of muscle cells:

Before an explosive effort, the brain does not know about speed, only power (on-off effect), and recruits the ST and FT cells at the same time, brain stimulation necessary for this to happen there must be maximum, about 40 hertz (more stimulation can only be achieved with electric shock).
If you want explosive power base, working with 80% of your RM (maximum weight for one repetition).

Working Example explosive (it is important to pause 15 seconds between reps not to enter into lactic stage):

* Circuit bench press 70 kg 56 kg to RM-6 repetitions expolsivas (leaving 15 seconds pause).
* Remo pointed RM-64 80 kg for 6 reps expolsivas (leaving 15 seconds pause).
* Leg Press 150 kg RM-120 for 6 reps expolsivas (leaving 15 seconds pause).

What matters here is the discharge chemistry effort. The weight work is a means, not an end. Pure explosive efforts require a previous merger (which occurs only in karate in deep shock and isolated), and while karate moves are complex (between 150-300 ms) it is important to have a good base explosive. The pause of 15 seconds ensures no separation of lactic acid, explosive performance (attempts to lift as quickly as possible) causes brain stimulation reaches the threshold of 40 herzt, and recruitment of muscle cells is complete. The proof that you have in Olympic lifting is among the most explosive evidence of games, and among the fastest moving.

In self-defense methods always gives the initial three seconds as critical. In the assault phase is that the burden boxer knocks. The contradores and batterers are characterized by a regime of low intensity, but highly explosive action, with pauses that serve to restore muscle and perceptive freshness. The need to break up a potentially explosive ork elt (not lactic anaerobic phase) of the resistance force (lactic anaerobic phase) is important to prevent the formation of barriers of speed (a concept which will be discussed later.)

Often boys are working average weights and high repetitions, as bodybuilders, mistaking the resistance force (work very differently) and muscle hypertrophy with work-based and pure explosive.

A muscle biopsy would show that only ST cells hypertrophy (slow), weight gain (and therefore higher energy expenditure, increased recovery) would make them jump to other categories, not achieve the desired explosion.

Another important observation is that concerning the use of skeletal muscles in explosive movements simple (throw-shooting) and muscles used in complex movements. As we explained before, the brain only understood in terms of power, not speed. A simple movement like taking a shot requires skeletal muscles (rounded, thick and strong) convergence in an effort-oriented and easily. But when an explosive movement requires complex, such a fake and then a blow (intermuscular coordination), the cluster of numerous small pulses all the way and learning demands an effort much greater concentration (the example launcher hammer in the final turn not to leave the network). The muscles that allow small movements that require a lot of coordination are often composed of numerous motor units (2000) with a small amount of muscle fibers (10 to 40). In contrast, the large muscles of the human being contain 2-3 times less motor units, but up to 200 fibers. The fragmentation of movements that make the boxers (and Downswings Backswings) besides serving to embarrass or save time, have the function of separating the two previous muscle work.

Finally, it is important to know that the muscles will also send information to the brain in a feedback mechanism. Two chemicals, actin and myosin, level muscle. If we apply too much heat, excessive stretching or just a deep massage before exercise, there is an uneven effect (Hearns blamed his loss to Hagler to massage his legs, Marciano spoke of the previous claim of the muscles just before shooting his blows more loaded. The same Marciano was known for his work of crushing the opponent's arms, which produced tetanize ie enervation and involuntary muscle stiffness).

Types of loads applied in karate:

The charges that are applied in karate are reduced to three: the weight of the boxer, the member is released and the weight of the rival.
As the weight of the arm is unimportant, let's talk a little weight. Karate is categorized by weight (not size or morphology), as a means of achieving equality results in the fighter's safety. In general, the more weight as few strokes as computed by assault, but more power. You need to know that the brain's weight is nearly constant is the category it is, and the impact of course varies. This is exacerbated by high level boxers, since they move less (because of its volume since the space of the ring is identical to the category one) and the impact will be given greater support. Another curiosity is that the lowest categories proportionately harder hit (as they generate more power to put more speed in his punches, encouraging a critical mass retail). All these curiosities explain that one weighed less than 70% of kos does not consider him a knockout, but instead a fly with a 50% is considered a killer.
Framing a boxer in a category is complicated, but resorting to modeling of Soviet fighters we have this formula:

= Weight (height in cm (eg 175)-100-size (175) -150) / 4 = 68,750

Weighting-thin bone structure (wrist measurement) = 0.925
Weighting half-bone structure (wrist measurement) = 1
Weighting-thick bone structure (wrist measurement) = 1.08

From the age of 25 must be added 400 GRM * year, proucida the normal slowing of metabolism and various mechanisms.

In karate there is the peculiarity that the boxer is rifle bullet while he may at any time load control (getting more or less weight, or power), depending on the situation. In turn, one of the few sports that is also white. A good work of aerobic phase volume (with oxygen as the main fuel, long duration and intensity moderate heart) put us in our fighting weight. In addition, the approach of the fight has a somatic effect that inhibits appetite. The ideal weight found in the month before is great, it can be adapted globally (in movement, balance, power, point of blows) fighting performance. The use of diuretics, saunas ... etc., threatening dehydration the boxer (the brain is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, if this is low, the possibility of clot formation is triggered by lower damping). Drinking while doing rounds is dangerous, as water filled the stomach apart from being a burden, it makes feel more hits (we're a "sack" Fuller). The thirst mechanism is controlled by the hypothalamus, and as we drink certain amount gives the order of satiety, but be careful, the water takes 20 minutes? to metabolize. The boxer fools the hypothalamus rinsing and spitting.

The weight is the biggest problem faced by many fighters, and the framing of category is a function of X escape rival, the possible stock in X category, age or ambition. I remember the response of Roberto Duran in a press conference. The Panamanian had signed a fight in the super weight means, and then had to walk the 90 kg (carcass). A malicious journalist, with its clear statement of how ... Circular!, Asked how he would get to be in the weight in just 60 days until the match. The cholo up those little eyes, he fixed his eyes and let go worse "I'm going to set a month in the toilet, shitting to take the brain." You see, in terms of weighing, Cholo Duran is a true Renaissance Man.


Speed has an innate component, as we saw. We can train a partial movement (drop a jab) at 200 msg and after 10 years only have shortened to 150 milliseconds. A boxer can be quick to strike and slow to defend (to the brain that is totally different.) The single-speed (out of a sprint) is not comparable to a boxer needs (complex-disjunctive, ie answering questions as to go out, how, when, who Háqqah the rival). We can be powerful and fast in isolated actions, and one can be fast and powerful global computing the assault. We split a very important topic for an athlete.
Perceptual speed in attack and defense are not, except in the perception of external stimulus as a trigger, nothing to see.

Speed perception in the attack: The visual perception is the medium-long distance, and more touch on the short (imagine having to even rival the external openings). The first gear that uses a boxer is the eye muscle, in calculating the target (figure rival) calculated the trajectory and then the volume (holes). Before that, does not move. And always calculated in relation to himself. Is calculated from a positional framework (the guard), planning target and its own action, ie which will be anticipating the opponent and where will your own position (equilibrium) by complex parameters (axis of head, center of gravity , etc), adding all the sensors in a selective manner (central nervous system). The final effect is a recalibration between sensory input and the desired posture. Not only calculates the movement of rival but also what their own position. The movement is a source of imbalance as the body changes the geometry. Learning With good movements and a good guard (extremely important these two concepts) get a postural adjustment in advance, which precedes any order motion terms of speed and strength.

Perceptual speed on defense: The retina locates the position of the rival in terms of distance to my body while evaluating the position of my hand or forearm with the trunk. It produces an expansion of the retina (to calculate the speed, detecting the type of shot, adjust even with ambient light). Only when that transaction is made, gives the order to the muscles and joints. The calculations predicted in the interest of stretch, to calculate the appropriate positional rebalancing in stiffness parameters (as means of maintaining the basic position of the guard), and absorption (rotation of the ankle, hip displacement, bending mode of the legs buffer) or execution of a shift.

The work of these rates is complex, the exercises require you to be associated with specific sport. Given that a jab is executed in 150 msg, and no action in response to low 300seg, the only way that the numbers add up is to say that the boxer anticipates and executes movements that force the opponent to react in the most predictable. Boxing is the best way to achieve perceptual speed for boxers.

Some work (less time pressure than time pressure) in perceptual speed are associated with response:

Combat Glove: The sparring targeted puts us behind his glove, and we bothering with his hand going forward. The sparring (unless the preparer other specific order) should try to create the greatest problems in pace, distance, cons, etc. for the boxer who works to adapt and get answers. But this will always take some time and has some limits. At first the boxer takes to get away, a feeling of fighting (which is called into the fight), and it is important that the sparring between in the same game to prevent cold shock and accidents. At one point, after a crescendo of rhythm and analyzed situations, the boxer takes its highest rate of speed of perception, and as a soccer goalkeeper, the more they throw better for. At one point, the response to that stimulus low and begins to fail. That's a good sparring must understand, and connected to it.

In terms of volume of punches, power impact or change of rhythms, the sparring should primarily ensure the safety of partner. The axiom that the blow should be: "A: The hardest thing possible, B: in the most painful and C: At the right time", is perfect for the real fight, but when run on a mitten or two of these postulates are slow. Learning is adaptation, with appropriate charges and a contact sport better to go to spend less. A beginner can not receive two input ostiazos because it will back the assault course. And we must realize that if he has to go and lets go sparring (eye, but she lets go places, he thrusts his hand or he passes, with the connotation that the fighters have these words), if the two loose a jab, time for action is ... 70 msg!, Half the time of execution of a jab (150 msg). You have to know the magnitude with which we play.

Glove defense at work: The sparring attacks us, we just defend ourselves. The defense as a primary value of work will allow us to build confidence, and not need to attack we can not be made. Perceptual speed is given as the defense is not proactive (the movements do not come on our initiative) and if reactive. Use all means of defense (displacements and guard the main). Remember that a hand strip if you do not see it coming, catches you drawing or if you are afraid. If you want to increase the speed you can run the assault on the corner without leaving. To cancel out the factor of distance, time pressure increases, but beware that the sparring is passed.

Work Glove defense in an answer (eg soap): The sparring behind places the white glove, and it bothers me to the advanced. Comprobaréis tiráis like jab that is loaded, due to the stress of the fight (to feel at a disadvantage loads that response). Now be careful because there may be against. If you respond to your sparring so hard, but without guard, receive impact. Module is not just speed but also your frustration (remember being in "the Zone", make your back and swing down, in and out).

Glove defense with two responses (direct jab or right): This is necessary for the preparer to answer and mark time. Advise you to use coded language, ie the jab is called by another name (eg, shoot) in English (it is shorter, as are training the dogs), and straight back for instance (crooss). The goal is that the boxer is used to the sound and voice coach who will be in his corner, the opponent and his corner will have trouble deciphering the orders of the trainer (note, I have some personal experience, some fight left in moments of pause, and listened to the coach of rival orders, which were not encrypted, and really gave him a beating on the contrary). Can be encrypted in boxers experts, series and combinations that can be drawn from a tight spot if you block an opponent in the fight.

Now the boxer reacts to the hand of sparring and the external stimulus of the order of the coach, and from the situation where you are, you must run one of the two answers you have prepared. The time pressure is enormous.

Free with a sparring glove waiting on the counter: The sparring is not going to move forward on the boxer, the boxer who has to move forward. Backswings run on the very edge of the distance of trade, to enter and hit the back of sparring glove. The output of the series should make it so quick and explosive. I advise you start entering with straight punches, and go testing the ractions of sparring. For its part, the sparring contract with: hit simultaneously (note that the speeds here are duplicated), stop-against, remise or (as you leave).

This will work, besides perceptual speed, explosive speed of execution, the attack and output, overcoming the fear of entry. If I want to further increase the time pressure, do this job without moving, leaving the boxer against the ropes and sparring in front of it (the slowest part of any movement is the beginning).

From less to more time pressure, we have a very good training for Answers explosion and perception. It is very important to alternate roles, so they have large recovery breaks. The exchange of blows they must have minimum 10 seconds pauses between action and action. If I do all that work followed, crossing a job lactic explosive phase is not (without generating lactic acid) to current phase (phase lactic). The response to the stimulus is not explosive, but intense. I think SPEED BARRIER. Was found that continued to repeat sprints with slower sprinters. The necessary pauses, torn fragmentation, maintenance, and the arrival of sprinter trained by segments gave a better result, then allowed to increase the stimulus at all points. I know perfectly that karate is largely an amateur sport lactic anaerobic exercise, high intensity (try it in my next article.) But if I concentrate just on aggregate, the speed-power will be reduced by the barriers of speed to be created. Undoubtedly, two women aged 20 years are more stimulating than a 40 (my God! How I can put these examples?!).
Outside jokes, the mitt is a system that allows an approach to large real fire situation. Not only as a means to advance work on the speed and execution. The lactic anaerobic work (real stress intensity of the assault), the aerobic system learning, suitability for certain types of competitors, etc ... can work perfectly. The burden of beats sparring partner should be at the level of the boxer and the end (not the same as a professional an amateur or a beginner.)


Goods sold, both the heavy bag work (45% by weight of the boxer) and a slight (20%) in series and combinations for the beginner to the expert (the series is a succession of coups and the combination is a set of series with the middle gestures that break the opponent's possible responses.) The one-two is a series if I run and I step lateral (out of line but not the distances) and I put two shots behind, I am running a combination, build my karate and destroyed the rival. Combinations are many, and the simplest are the best. The execution will be the most supported and hardest possible, with breaks where I move from 10-15 seconds. The assault can be of three minutes for a rest. Clearly, the real fight has other schemes and changes of pace, but the goal of the session is only the speed-power performance. The number of rounds, if I worked the gauntlet before, with four is enough.

Travel speed: The typical dance moves are complex to work since they have very different rhythms, turns, stride length, exits ... all depending on the situation.

The foot contact is made with the plateau metatarsal and pushing against the ground (the base of the ring accelerates the actions being more elastic than normal soil).

The stride length varies depending on how far it is the rival, shortening added in steps (such as a tennis player who falls to the network that is slowing strides in length but increasing in pace).

Working with 10 seconds to accelerate sagging and yielding 10 is good, the shadow in pursuit (we only use our body as a load), the rope and the web (the first rope only to shoulder level, we run the forward-traveling ago, while fake waist, applying or not defensive and offensive gestures. The web is a series of strings stretched on the top of the ring rope, crossing from side to side, with which we must try to dribble while we travel). All these exercises can be applied to any system of work, but if we try to work the explosive fragmentation is necessary at times be respected.

Currently being used weighted vests (the kind that leads Lennox Lewis). The charges should not spend 5-6% of body weight, and keeping the explosion on the go (if you only work with the rhythms resistance force). Explosive movements do not occur automatically, it requires a mental effort of concentration to perform them. The chances of ending tendinitis are big, the footwear is very important, the surface on which they perform must be absorbent, and the work is not advisable to vest pubertal, and people with back problems and overweight. These vests spread the weight around the hips, and are ergonomic. For working with larger gravitational forces, and applied in all technical execution. Not know how long-term result, but Emanuel Steward while back, I guess that will result.

Rest in the speed-power work: Of course no one would get all this work happen suddenly. The training you are looking for over-adjustment that arises after reclamation work (remember, all training is an attack on the body). Recovery is usually within 48 hours, but in the following way:

In the first 30% of the recovery period (48 * 0.33 = 15 first hours) = 60%
In the second 30% of the recovery period (48 * 0.66 = 30 hours) = 30%
In the third 30% of the recovery period (48 hours) = 48 hours total = 10%

This means that although you can not speed power train the next day, if you have recovered enough to work a speed-strength aerobic session, for example. We shall see in more detail to study the organization of training cycles. Just add a session of massage or stretching shortens the recovery period.

Certainly one might think that a boxer ready recovers first, but consider that the training load is also higher, so it evens out in the same parameters.

In following works speak of-lactic anaerobic training (which is part amateur karate) and aerobic training volume (bottom). Are always training to enhance physical qualities, together with the technical specifications for my most important. The boxer must have great physical attributes, but the techniques they multiply the effectiveness of the first. Russian physiologists modeled the physical qualities of the perfect fighter, and found that none of the elite boxers met. The boxer made up for one another, husbanded and managed the effort in a masterly manner. He specialized in one and trying to match the style change produced negative results.


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